RFC: HAL support for Apigility on Expressive


Hypertext Application Language, or HAL, is defined in two IETF proposals, JSON Hypertext Application Language and XML Hypertext Application Language. The basic ideas behind each are:

  • Provide generic, extensible resource representations for APIs.
  • Provide standard mechanisms for such representations to provide hypermedia controls, or links.
  • Allow resources to embed other related resources.

These three features allow providing generic payloads with relatively standard structure from APIs.

We have previously provided an implementation via our zf-hal Apigility module. This implementation is tied inextrictably to both zend-mvc and zend-view, making it impossible to re-use within Expressive, or, more generally, PSR-7 middleware applications.

While other JSON and XML representations exist, such as Collection+JSON and json:api, we feel HAL is a viable option for APIs due to its simplicity, predictability, and extensibility. In terms of Apigility on Expressive, we also feel providing this format initially will help keep the new project familiar to existing Apigility users.

This RFC proposes an architecture for how HAL support will be offered by Zend Framework for consumption specifically in Expressive, and potentially within the existing Apigility v1 project.


  • Provide a usable API around creation of HAL resources and links, with only the minimum functionality necessary to create full resource and link representations.
  • Use relevant standards whenever possible:
    • PSR-7 (HTTP Messages) for pulling request data such as the URI, Accept header, and, under Expressive, RouteResult), and generating responses.
    • PSR-13 (Links) for representing relational links
    • PSR-11 (Container) for providing factories for use with dependency injection containers.
  • Standalone usage of links and resources that do not require additional components or features beyond packages defining standard interfaces. While value extraction and dynamic link generation are required features, they also bind the component to other components and, potentially, frameworks. The core functionality should be usable anywhere.
  • Immutability. A resource should not change over time; changes represent new resources, which allow equality comparisons.
  • Opt-in features for generating resources from objects. These should allow identifying collections (vs standalone resources), embedding resources, and providing default link sets.
  • Opt-in features for paginating resource collections.
  • Opt-in features for auto-generating self relational URIs based on routes.
  • Provide the ability to generate both JSON and XML representations.
  • Use 3rd party components, including ZF components, where possible, to
    implement everything from core functionality to opt-in functionality.


One basic tenet of HAL is facilitating HATEOAS, by providing links to other, related resources and/or actions to perform. This is accomplished by the _links reserved pseudo-element in the JSON version of the spec, and the <link> reserved element in the XML version of the spec.

Within the PHP ecosystem, PSR-13 addresses the idea of links and collections of links. This library should provide a LinkInterface and/or EvolvableLinkInterface implementation.

$link = new Link($rel, $uri, $isTemplated);
$link = $link->withAttribute('title', 'Book');


CURIE stands for “Compact URI”, and is somewhat analogous to XML namespaces: you link a CURIE namespace to a templated URI, and then other links will use that namespace as part of their relation, and their URI will be relative to the templated URI. As an example:

"_links": {
  "curies": [
      "name": "doc",
      "href": "https://example.com/api/doc/{rel}",
      "templated": true
      "name": "book",
      "href": "https://example.com/api/book/{rel}",
      "templated": true
  "doc:book": {
    "href": "/book"
  "book:author": {
    "href": "/{book_id}/author",
    "templated": true
"book_id": "XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ"

In the above cases, two CURIE is defined, one with the namespace doc, and another with the namespace book. Our two other links expand on each of these, and ultimately resolve to:

  • doc:book: https://example.com/api/doc/book
  • book:author: https://example.com/api/book/XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ/author

Interestingly, CURIE support can be expressed already in terms of PSR-13 interfaces.

To create a CURIE link, we create a normal LinkInterface instance with the relation curies which is templated, and where the href contains the string {rel}; this is the template that is expanded by a CURIE’d relational link. Finally, we ensure the link has an attribute name which is the namespace for any CURIE links we create.

We then add such a link to a LinkProviderInterface instance. If we have multiple links with curies relations, these are aggregated.

Finally, we can then add links where the relation is <CURIE namespace>:<relation>; when encountered, clients are expected to look up the namespace amongst the curies links, and then replace the {rel} template with the href of the link.

Link generator

Generating URLs from routes, however, requires access to either the router or the UrlHelper. One possibility is to have a LinkGenerator class that composes the UrlHelper (and optionally ServerUrlHelper in order to provide fully-qualified URIs), and provides a factory method for generating a link:

$generator = new LinkGenerator(
    $container->get(ServerUrlHelper::class) // Optional

// Optional; proxies to UrlHelper::setRouteResult() to allow re-use of matched
// parameters.

// Optional; proxies to ServerUrlHelper::setUri()

$link = $generator->fromRoute($relation, $route, $routeParams, $queryParams);

(In the last line, the last two arguments would be optional.)


Any such class would need to be in an Expressive-specific bridge package, due to its reliance on the zend-expressive-helpers classes.

Alternately, the package could define interfaces for UrlHelperInterface and ServerUrlHelperInterface that define the generate() methods as they are defined in zend-expressive-helpers. The package could then optionally depend on zend-expressive-helpers, and provide “implementations” like:

namespace Hal\Link\Helper;

use Zend\Expressive\Helper\UrlHelper as ExpressiveUrlHelper;

class UrlHelper extends ExpressiveUrlHelper implements UrlHelperInterface

This would also require the package to override the UrlHelper and ServerUrlHelper services, and provide alternate factories for each.

This approach would make it possible to keep the link and link generation functionality within the core library, and allow users to create their own implementations if they want to use the functionality outside the Expressive ecosystem.


A Resource will implement the PSR-13 EvolvableLinkCollection interface, and is intended to be immutable once created.

However, to allow users to evolve the resource — e.g., to add data that may not be discoverable via object extraction — the class will have methods for:

  • withElement($name, $value) will add that element under the given $name using the provided $value. That value MUST be a non-object value. The method will return a new instance composing the value. If an element of $name already existed, this method will replace the value.
  • withElements(array $elements) expects an associative array of key/value pairs to compose in the resource. Like withElement(), these will replace existing values. The method returns a new instance.
  • embed($name, Resource $resource) will embed the given $resource, under the provided $name. If another resource already exists under that name, this method will create an array with the two values, if they are of the same structure (raising an exception if not); if the value is an array already, this method will append the new value to that array (if it is of the same structure as other elements in the array).

As such, you would be able to directly create resources and manipulate them:

$resource = new Resource();
$resource = $resource->withElements($bookData);
$resource = $resource->withLink(new Link('self', $uriToBook));
$resource = $resource->embed('author', $authorResource);

This works when you have scalar data. But we like to work with typed objects, right? And generate URIs based on our routes?


When we have typed objects, we may want to generate resources by:

  • extracting an array of data from the object, likely using zend-hydrator.
  • generating a “self” link using a route template; in the case of discrete resources, this may also involve using the object identifer to fill a placeholder within a route template.
  • potentially incorporate some default, non-self links.
  • potentially add pagination information in the case of collections.

These are things we tackled in zf-hal previously. That component/module presents an interesting architecture for mapping resource metadata. Resource metadata describes the various bits of information we need in order to create a complete resource representation, essentially.

Basic metadata includes the following:

  • The PHP class the metadata maps to.
  • Any additional links other than a “self” link to include. Essentially, just like a Resource, the metadata acts as a PSR-13 EvolvableLinkCollection.

Metadata for all basic, non-collection resources would also include:

  • The extractor to use when extracting the resource for this class.

Metadata for non-generated URL-based resources (i.e., not using the UrlHelper) would include:

  • A URL to use for the self relation.

Metadata for route-based resources would include:

  • The field representing the identifier for the resource, if any.
  • The route associated with the resource.
  • The placeholder used for the resource identifier in the route, if any.
  • Any additional route parameters to include when generating a URI for this resource.

Metadata for all collections would include:

  • The embedded resource name to use for the collection.

Metadata for non-generated URL-based collections (i.e., not using the UrlHelper) would include:

  • A URL to use for the self relation.
  • Optionally pagination information:
    • does pagination occur as a query string parameter, or via a placeholder (of the form %<page parameter name>% within the URL string)?
    • what is the name of the query string parameter and/or placeholder?
  • Optionally, the query string parameter for indicating a page of results

Metadata for route-based collections would include:

  • The route associated with the resource.
  • Any additional route parameters to include when generating a URI for this resource.
  • Optionally pagination information:
    • does pagination occur as a query string parameter, or via a routing parameter?
    • what is the name of the query string parameter and/or routing parameter?
  • Optionally, any additional query string parameters to include in a generated URI

Essentially, the metadata subcomponent would have the following hierarchy:

  • AbstractMetadata
    • AbstractResourceMetadata
      • UrlBasedResourceMetadata
      • RouteBasedResourceMetadata
    • AbstractCollectionMetadata
      • UrlBasedCollectionMetadata
      • RouteBasedCollectionMetadata

Metadata exists parallel and orthoganal to the actual resources. It is
information that can be used to generate resources themselves.

As such, we’d describe objects in our system that we want to represent using HAL:

$booksMetadata = new RouteBasedCollectionMetadata(
    BooksCollection::class, // collection class
    'books',                // collection name
    'books'                 // route name
$booksMetadata = $booksMetadata->withLink(new Link('search', $urlHelper(
    ['query' => 'search string']

$bookMetadata = new RouteBasedResourceMetadata(
    Book::class,           // resource class
    BookExtractor::class,  // extractor service to use
    'book',                // route associated with resource
    'book_id',             // extracted resource identifier
    'id'                   // route resource identifier

Metadata is then added to a map, which provides methods for determining if a given class has metadata associated, and, if so, allows retrieval of that metadata.

$metadataMap = new MetadataMap();

This set of classes could exist independently of any consumer, and could be provided in the base HAL package. zf-hal could, for instance, be updated to depend on this package, and it would likely still work exactly as it currently does.

Resource Generator

Now that we have links, resources, and metadata, we can look at automating resource generation from objects.

The resource generator acts as a factory for generating Resource instances. To do its work, it needs:

  • A metadata map.
  • An extraction plugin manager (Zend\Hydrator\HydratorPluginManager).
  • The LinkGenerator.
$generator = new ResourceGenerator();

// OR, more properly:

$generator = new ResourceGenerator(

Using arrays or stdClass objects as resources

You can use plain arrays or stdClass instances as resources. When you do, you will optionally provide the self link.

// Without `self` link:
$resource = $generator->fromArray($data);

// With `self` link:
$resource = $generator->fromArray($data, $uri);

In such cases, it’s likely simpler to directly instantiate and manipulate a Resource.

Using objects known to the metadata map

// Request is used so that we can pull the route result, if present, and pass it
// to the LinkGenerator; similarly, the request URI instance will also be
// passed to it, allowing generation of an absolute URI if the LinkGenerator
// composes a ServerUrlHelper.
// @var Book $book
// @var ServerRequestInterface $request
$resource = $generator->fromObject($book, $request);

Adding links

As noted earlier, resources act as PSR-13 EvolvableLinkCollection instances.

$resource->withLink(new Link('author', (string) $authorUri));


The base Resource class contains a toArray() method for generating an array representation of the HAL resource. Additionally, it implements JsonSerializable, which proxies to the toArray() method.

// Finally, we can either cast it to an array:
$arrayRepresentation = $resource->toArray();

// Or it will implement JsonSerializable, allowing this:
$json = json_encode($resource);

Embedded resources

There are two scenarios for embedding resources. The first, and simplest, is manual, and described earlier:

$author = $generator->fromObject($author, $request);
$resource = $resource->embed('author', $author);

The above creates a new HAL resource for the author, and then embeds it in the original book resource as an author.

The second approach is to do so “automagically” from the master resource.

As an example, if any element extracted from the master resource is an object known to the metadata map, the generator will call fromObject() on that instance, and then embed() the resulting resource in the parent resource, using the key associated with the object.

If you embed another resource with the same name, this now becomes a collection: an array of resources:

$secondAuthor = $generator->fromObject($secondAuthor, $request);
$resource = $resource->embed('author', $secondAuthor);

Internally, the resource will check if the resource to embed matches an existing key, and, if so, that the structure (data keys) matches those of the existing items embedded under that key, raising an exception if they do not. If they do, the embedded resource will be converted to an array containing both elements. If the embedded resource is already an array, it will validate the resource to append before appending it.


zf-hal differentiated between entities and collections, but the HAL specification makes no such distinction; everything is a resource.

A collection is simply a resource containing an embedded resource that is an array of items of the same type. The generator, on matching a collection to an AbstractCollectionMetadata instance, will do the following:

  • If the item IS NOT a zend-paginator Paginator instance:
    • get a count of items if it is countable; otherwise, it will start counting
    • iterate over each item, and:
      • pass the item to the generator in order to generate a resource
      • embed the resource in the parent item, using the resource name for the collection from the metadata
      • if a counter is present, increment it
    • Add data to the collection indicating the total count
  • If the item IS a zend-paginator Paginator instance:
    • get a count of pages, and add it as data to the resource.
    • retrieve the count indicating the total number of items, and add it as data to the resource.
    • if the collection supports pagination:
      • get the current page, using the page retrieved from the request
      • determine if a next, previous, last, or first page are possible based on the current page
      • embed links to the discovered pages
      • create the “self” link using the current page, if it is not the first, and using either the embedded URL or the composed route
    • if the collection does not support pagination
      • create the “self” link using either the embedded URL or the composed route
    • iterate over the items in the current page:
      • pass the item to the generator in order to generate a resource
      • embed the resource in the parent item, using the resource name for the collection from the metadata

All of this happens under the hood, meaning creation of a “collection” resource is the same as a normal resource:

$books = $generator->fromObject($books, $request);

Rendering / Response generation

JSON rendering is dirt-simple, as we can use the array representation plus JsonSerializable implementation to make it happen. However, that fact does not set the response content type, and does not address custom content-types or XML.

As such, a response generator/factory will be needed. It will accept the following:

  • A request instance, in order to negotiate which format to generate.
  • The resource to create a representation for.
  • Optionally, the specific content-type, minus representation format, to return in the generated response.
use Hal\ResponseFactory;
use Zend\Diactoros\Response;

$factory = new ResponseFactory(new Response());
$response = $factory->createResponse($request, $resource, 'application/vnd.book');

You can force a representation by providing a request with an alternate Accept header:

// Force a JSON reprensentation:
$response = $factory->createResponse(
    $request->withHeader('Accept', 'application/json'),

The response generator will determine which representation format to use, defaulting to XML, and then serialize accordingly.

With respect to Pagination and the handling of collection is it sometimes useful to provide information about the entire collection. This was one gap in the Apigility implementation – it was difficult to modify the collection before it was sent out in the response (doable, but certainly not intuitive).

Given a collection of generic products that contain two fields: name and price

          "name": "test 1",
          "price": 5.00
        "name": "test 2",
        "price": 10.00

// additional information would go here, at the collection level
    "averagePrice": 7.50

The ability to add in a custom field, especially on a large paginated set is useful for certain client-facing situations in the form of statistical information or other information (available as direct fields, or more complex objects). With this information available, dashboards or other informative bits about the collection can be constructed in a single GET operation against the collection as opposed to needing to fetch the entire collection or create a separate statistical summary endpoint.

IMHO, the best term for the above would be “Collection Metadata” – information about the collection itself.

This is addressed in the new component!

You would use the ResourceGenerator to generate the Resource before passing it to the response generator. As such, you have access to the Resource, and can inject additional data into it (well, technically, a clone):

$products = $resourceGenerator->fromObject($paginatedCollection);
$products = $products->withElement('averagePrice', array_reduce($products->getElement(''products'), $calculateAveragePrice, 0);

return $responseFactory->createResponse($request, $products, 'application/vnd.products');
1 Like

Quick update: I’ve completed initial development of the library at this time, and it can now be installed via packagist:

$ composer require weierophinney/hal

I will be writing documentation over the next 1-2 days; until then, the tests can guide you.

Documentation is now complete: https://weierophinney.github.io/hal/

I’ve given this a whirl in a test API, and it’s working like a charm!

If you can, please provide feedback!

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I’ve just released v0.2.0, which separates rendering into a subcomponent, Hal\Renderer. The HalResponseFactory now uses a JsonRenderer and XmlRenderer.